Small Wind Turbines (Horizontal Axis)


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Description Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) are built with a main rotor shaft and an electrical generator that are installed on the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind. The small turbines can be pointed into the wind by a simple wind vane, while large turbines often use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. Most have a gearbox, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation which is more suitable to drive an electrical generator.
Advantages
  • Increased efficiency in power production
  • Smooth transfer of that power from the rotor to the gearbox
Disadvantages

Noise exposure which reduces especially the applicability in urban areas

Characteristic features

Conversion of kinetic energy from the wind into electrical power

Application barriers

High initial investment cost

Information sources http://www.nordex-online.com
http://www.braun-windturbinen.com
http://www.vestas.com/
http://wind-turbine.com
Image
Trade: Building services
Parameter Minimal Value Maximal Value Unit
Nominal Power

0.025

250

kW

Nominal Wind Speed

8

20

m/s

Start Wind Speed

2

4

m/s

Stop Wind Speed

10.5

60

m/s

Maximum Wind Speed Allowed

60

250

km/h

Rotor Weight

3

2300

kg

Rotor Diameter

0.5

21

m

Rotor Surface

0.196

346

m2

Mast Height

5

36

m

Maximum Rotation Speed

47

1200

rpm

Transmission

Gearless, Spur gear/planet gears, Compact shaft mounted gear, No brake system

Safety

Pitch-control + generator overload regulation, Inductors, Blade pitch control, Electrical, Optional remote control at tower base, Short circuit in generator, Disk brake + Mech tip brake, Parking brake system, Stall, Electro-dynamic, Electromagnetic, Electronic"Pitch-control + generator overload regulation, Inductors, Blade pitch control, Electrical, Optional remote control at tower base, Short circuit in generator, Disk brake + Mech tip brake, Parking brake system, Stall, Electro-dynamic, Electromagnetic, Electronic" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Number of Blades

2

6

Material Blades

Composite fibre glass, Glass filled polypropylene, Glass reinforced nylon, Carbon fibre epoxy, Glass reinforced plastic, Steel polyster, Polypropylene, Polyurethane

Voltage (AC)

12

500

V

Minimum Operating Temperature

-40

-20

°C

Maximum Operating Temperature

35

120

°C

Noise at 20 m Distance with 5 m/s

3

95

DB

Positioning

on the ground

on the roof

Operating Efficiency

35

52

%

Annual Degradation Rate in Efficiency

%

Annual Produced Energy

kWh

Investment Cost

2.320

7.539

€/kW

Operational Cost

2

3

% of capital cost

Maintenance Cost

1

3

% of the turbine cost

Life Expectancy

10

30

years

Deterioration Description
Causes
Parameter
Degradation Rate
Measurement


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